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​At the end of the 18th century, the Jews of Western and Eastern Europe, sometimes forcibly, and sometimes joyfully and voluntarily, began to merge into the cultures of the surrounding peoples - a long life in the “ghetto” seemed to many burdensome and dragging them into the past. And for more than a century, Jewish artists (painters, graphic artists, sculptors) have been representatives of the culture of the people among whom they live; their artistic tradition is formed within the diaspora.

The fine arts of Israel were also formed mainly from trends and schools introduced by repatriate masters who arrived from different parts of the globe with new and new waves of aliyah.

Jews have always not only absorbed local customs, values, and priorities, but also actively influenced their environment. At the same time, Jews, including Jewish artists, were haunted by the desire to remain themselves, to preserve their individuality. Such multi-layered, multi-faceted Jewish consciousness was one of the reasons that distinguished Jews from the general environment.

Jews made a huge contribution to the history of art in many countries of the world, but this did not yet mean the emergence of Jewish fine art. The philosopher Martin Buber noted that the Jewish art school is not something that exists, but something that develops and can take place. And today, after many years, it is hardly possible to state the emergence of a Jewish art school, be it in Israel or in the countries of the Diaspora. The current situation is similar to that which existed a hundred years ago. A native of a Lithuanian town, the sculptor Mark Antokolsky created works on Jewish themes (miniatures “The Jew the Tailor”, “The Miser Jew”, “The Dispute about the Talmud”), but he entered the history of world fine art with monumental sculptural portraits from Russian history - “Ivan Terrible", "Nestor the Chronicler", "Peter the Great". Marc Chagall, whose Jewishness in art is seemingly easy to prove, is considered by art critics to be a Russian or French artist.

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Adler Yankel Jakub

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Yankel Jakub Adler was born on July 26, 1895 in the Polish city of Tuszyn, Russian Empire, and died on April 25, 1949 in Aldbourne, Wiltshire, England. His heart broke when he learned that his entire family had died in the Holocaust. Dramatic nostalgia, pessimistic fatalism, and a premonition of disaster permeated his pre-war paintings on the themes of Jewish folklore, biblical and Talmudic subjects.

Altman Nathan Isaevich

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Nathan Isaevich Altman was born on December 10, 1889 in Vinnitsa, Podolsk province, died on December 12, 1970 in Leningrad. Avant-garde artist, sculptor and theater artist, master of portraiture. He experimented in different styles: post-impressionism, symbolism, fauvism. However, already in the early 1920s, any elements of avant-garde art gradually disappeared from the artist’s works. In 1924–1928 Altman was the main artist of GOSET.

Anisfeld Boris Izrailevich (Ber Srulevych)

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Boris Izrailevich (Ber Srulevych) Anisfeld - painter, theater artist, teacher.

Bakst Lev Samoilovich

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Lev Samoilovich Bakst (Leib-Haim Izrailevich Rosenberg) was born on January 27, 1866 in Grodno, died on December 27, 1924 in Rueil-Malmaison, France. Russian artist, set designer, illustrator and designer, who worked mainly in St. Petersburg and Paris. Master of easel painting and theatrical graphics, participant of the World of Art association and theatrical and artistic projects of S. P. Diaghilev.

Band Mordechai

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Mordechai Band was born on August 21, 1901 (according to other sources on August 26, 1899) into a Jewish religious family in Kudirkos Naumiestis (Lithuania). He lost his father at the age of three, and his mother died two years later.
He was a religious child: he studied the Talmud and received excellent grades at the Jewish gymnasium in Marijampole. Here Mordechai's extraordinary talent for art manifested itself. He drew a lot, copied the works of artists he liked from magazines and painted signs for stores. Due to a shortage of an art teacher, the talented and exceptionally obedient teenager filled this role at the gymnasium from the age of fourteen, and in 1917, when he was only eighteen, he began working as a teacher.

Bergner Josl

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БаскинЛеонард (Leonard Baskin; 1922, Нью-Брансуик, штат Нью-Джерси, США, — 2000, Норсэмптон, штат Массачусетс, США), американский скульптор и график.
Родился в семье ортодоксального раввина, эмигранта из Польши. В 1929 г. семья переехала в Бруклин, где Баскин поступил в иешиву. Одновременно он посещал Школу искусств при Эдукейшнл альянс, который был интеллектуальным и социальным центром еврейской жизни Ист-Сайда

Bruskin Grigory Davidovich

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Grigory Davidovich Bruskin was born on October 21, 1945 in Moscow. Russian and American artist, essayist and memoirist. Already in his first works, Bruskin created a structure that he continued to use in the future. It is based on the likening of the world to a comprehensive book. Based generally on the ideas of Kabbalah, he also uses symbols drawn from other religions in his work.

Chagall Mark Zakharovich

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Mark Zakharovich Chagall (1887, Liozno, Vitebsk province, Russian Empire - 1985, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Provence, France) - Russian and French artist of Jewish origin. In addition to graphics and painting, he was also involved in scenography and wrote poetry in Yiddish. One of the most famous representatives of the artistic avant-garde of the 20th century. Movsha Khatskelevich (later Moses Khatskelevich and Mark Zakharovich) 1887, Liozno near Vitebsk, was the eldest child in the family of clerk Khatskel Mordukhovich (Davidovich) Chagall and his wife Feiga-Ita Mendelevna Chernina. He had one brother and five sisters. The parents, who married in 1886, were each other's first cousins. The artist’s grandfather, Dovid Yeselevich Chagall (in documents also Dovid-Mordukh Ioselevich Sagal), who came from the town of Babinovichi, Mogilev province, in 1883 settled with his sons in the town of Dobromysli, Orsha district, Mogilev province, therefore, in the lists of owners of real estate in the city of Vitebsk, the artist’s father Khatskel Mordukhovich Chagall was recorded as a "good-hearted tradesman"; the artist's mother came from Liozno

David Ohler

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David Ohler, born January 19, 1902, in Warsaw, Poland, and died August 21, 1985 (aged 83) in Choisy-le-Grand, France, is a Polish Jewish painter and sculptor, naturalized French in 1937.

Epshtein Mark Isaevich

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Epshtein Mark Isaevich (Moisey Tsalerovich; 1899, Bobruisk, - 1949, Moscow), graphic artist, painter, sculptor, theater artist. Born into a family of artisans. He studied at a cheder in Kyiv, where his family moved shortly after his birth. Epstein's artistic abilities manifested themselves at an early age, in 1911–18. studied at the Kiev Art School in the sculpture class of F. Balavensky. In 1918 he attended classes in the studio of Alexandra Exter. His acquaintance in 1914–15 played a decisive role in the formation of Epstein’s creative ideals and national-cultural orientation. with the so-called Kyiv group of Jewish writers, which included D. Bergelson, Der Nister, D. Gofshtein, I. Dobrushin and others. The ideas of modernization of Jewish literature and art in general, which the group members strove for, deeply influenced Epstein, determining the nature of his work and life position. In the winter of 1916, together with his art school comrades - B. Aronson, I. B. Rybak, S. Nikritin (1898–1965) and M. Goldfine (died 1916), who took part in the activities of the Kunst-Farlag publishing house "Epstein tried to organize an exhibition of Jewish artists in Kyiv

Falk Robert Rafailovich

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Robert Rafailovich Falk (1886, Moscow - 1958, ibid.) - Russian painter of Jewish origin, who uniquely combined the paths of Russian modernism and avant-garde in his work; one of the most famous artists of Yiddish theater. In 1910 he became one of the founders of the artistic association “Jack of Diamonds”, in whose activities he participated from 1910 to 1916. From 1910 to 1911 he traveled to Italy.

After the revolution of 1917, from 1918 to 1928 he taught at the State Agricultural Academy - Vkhutemas - Vkhutein (now MGAHI named after Surikov); was the dean of the faculty of painting; his students were S. A. Chuikov, M. P. Ivanov-Radkevich, G. G. Nissky, E. P. Levina-Rozengolts, R. V. Idelson, N. M. Romadin, V. N. Ostroumov, P I. Falbov.

Fasini Sandro

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Sandro Fasini (pseudonym; also - Alexander Fasini; real name - Srul Arievich Fainzilberg, later - Saul Arnoldovich Fainzilber; 1892, Kiev - 1942, Auschwitz, Auschwitz concentration camp) - Russian, Soviet, then French surrealist artist, illustrator and photographer of Jewish origin , brother of Ilya Ilf.

Fraerman Teofil Borisovich

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Teofil Borisovich Fraerman (1883, Berdichev, Russian Empire - January 7, 1957, Odessa, Ukraine) - famous Ukrainian artist and teacher, student of K. K. Kostandi, Gabriel Forrier and Leon Bonn. One of the “Odessa Parisians”, he was also one of the organizers and leaders of the “Society of Independent Artists”.
Organizer of the Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art (1919-1920), where he worked for almost 30 years. Professor-Head of the Department of Painting at the Odessa Art Institute. Professor of the Department of Graphics and Drawing at the Odessa Civil Engineering Institute. Over 30 years of teaching, he raised a whole galaxy of artists and architects. His students were: People's Artist of the USSR E. A. Kibrik, O. A. Sokolov, D. Frumina, V. I. Polyakov, Honored Artist of the Ukrainian SSR N. A. Shelyuto, Professor A. Postel, S. B. Otroshchenko, Yu. Egorov and many others.

Frenkel-Fresnel Itzhak

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Itzhak Frenkel-Fresnel (Isaak Iosifovich Frenkel; 1899, Odessa - 1981, Tel Aviv) - Israeli and French artist. Born in Odessa. The sixth of seven children of Joseph Zvi Frenkel and Jochebed Kasher. Great-grandson of the famous tzaddik Leivi Yitzchok from Berdichev. He studied at the Odessa art school with A. A. Exter (1917). Since 1919 he lived in Eretz Israel. In 1920 he organized an art cooperative in Jaffa and an artists' studio in Herzliya. Then he leaves for Paris, where he studies at the School of Fine Arts and the Academy of Chamières, a student of the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle and the artist Henri Matisse. In 1924 he exhibited at the Salon of Independents in Paris.

Gold Gernady (German) Moiseevich

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Gernady (German) Moiseevich Gold (1933, Kursk) - Ukrainian Jewish artist, Honored Artist of Ukraine Gold Gernady (German) Moiseevich - Jewish artist in the art of Ukraine. Painter, draftsman, watercolorist. Member of the Union of Artists of the USSR (1964). Lives (since 1980) and works in Kyiv. In 2022 he repatriated to Israel. Born on August 23, 1933 in Kursk, Russia. Study: 1949 (with a break for military service 1952-1956) - 1957 - Yelets Art School with (graduate of the Kharkov Art Institute) Andrei Ilyich Kurnakov, whom Gold himself calls his “godfather”, with a former “Boychukist” (student of Mikhail Lvovich Boychuk at the Kiev Art Institute) Bertha Arnoldovna Giller and Valentin Andreevich Dudchenko.
Unusually impressionable and gifted from childhood (he has a literary gift, is musical, has a keen sense of color and plastic form), having undergone thorough training at school, Gold improved (1960-1962) under the direct guidance of People's Artist of the USSR Nikolai Nikolaevich Zhukov in Moscow, living in his workshop . Growing up in a military family, moving around the country a lot, Gold from his youth felt a special love for the nature of central Russia, for the life of its quiet province. He developed early as a romantic artist, developing his own sharply individual plastic style, based on expressive tonal painting of mainly large-format canvases, distinguished by rich colors.

Gottlieb Moshe David Mauritius

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Mauritius Gottlieb was born in 1856 in Drogobich, died in 1879 in Krakow. Outstanding Polish surrealist artist. One of the founders of modern Jewish art. One of the first major Jewish artists, he was a living refutation of the prejudice that history and religion had made the Jews a people incapable of creating in the field of painting and sculpture.

Issachar-Ber Rybak

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Issachar-Ber Rybak (1897, Elisavetgrad - 1935, Paris) - Jewish and French artist, painter, graphic artist and decorator. Issachar-Ber Rybak was born the youngest in a large poor family. In 1911-1912 he studied in Kyiv, at the Kiev Art School and the studio of A. A. Murashko. His teachers were the cubo-futurists A. A. Exter and Bogomazov. Creator and participant of the Kultur-League. Author of graphic works “Jewish types of Ukraine”, “Pogrom”, “Small Town”. Created the album “Jews in the Fields of Ukraine.”

Kaplan Samuil Solomonovich

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Samuil Solomonovich Kaplan was born on July 8, 1928 in Baku. Ukrainian graphic artist and painter. . Since 1991, he has been a US citizen and lives in New York. The main theme of creativity is man and the city. His paintings and graphics are characterized by lyricism, elements of fantasy and, at the same time, accuracy in the details of the image. It is enough to see his works once to remember them and the name of their creator forever.

Kaufman Isidor

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Isidor Kaufman (1853-1921), one of the largest Jewish realist artists.
Kaufman traveled all over Western and Eastern Europe, leaving magnificent sketches of everyday life, memories of small and large Jewish towns wiped off the face of the earth by revolutions and wars.

Kishinevsky Solomon Yakovlevich

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Solomon Yakovlevich Kishinevsky painter and graphic artist was born in 1862 in Odessa, died in 1941 or 1942 there. He was distinguished by a special perception of the surrounding reality, keen observation, and emphasized attention to the everyday existence of the “little man.” In the period from 1896 to 1902, he organized four “spring exhibitions” in Odessa, in which Odessa, St. Petersburg and Moscow artists took part.